IWAI Toshio 岩井 俊雄 (JAPAN|日本)

Time Stratum II 時間層II (1985)

Moving image installation, motorized optical toy, 3-D zoetrope sculpture
120 paper dolls mounted on a 3’ diameter disc, silver ball, video monitor as strobe light, flipping movements on four stacked concentric circles, centrifugal movements around the rotating axis of a turntable
Floor space: 3m (diameter)
流動影像裝置藝術, 機動化光學玩具, 三維西洋鏡雕塑
120個紙板人偶安裝於直徑3呎圓盤上、銀球、錄像屏幕作為頻閃燈, 層疊在四個同心圓上的翻轉動態, 圍繞轉盤旋轉軸的離心運動
佔地面積: 3米直徑

Toshio-Iwai_kids
young visitors at Time Stratum II, 29 December 2018

Synopsis   

Time Stratum II is included here, first, to mark a pre-digital moment of media art in Asia and, second, to assert a connection between new media and the moving image arts. In this installation, one of a series of four, Toshio Iwai experimented with re-making a pre-cinematic optical technology toy, the zoetrope, but using new technologies. In Time Stratum II, 120 paper figures, each wearing a TV head, are mounted on a motorized spinning disk 3 feet in diameter. These paper dolls oscillate as they spin on the rotating disk, and move towards and away from each other, seemingly in a choreographed performance. A video monitor is set above them, used as a strobe light to make the paper figures seem to burst into motion. By using a video monitor as strobe light, the colors and speed of lights can be synced with the music. All the elements combine to form a “moving” image that is in constant transformation.

 

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Time stratum II was awarded the Grand Prize, 17th Contemporary Japanese Art Exhibition, 1985, Meguro Art Museum, Tokyo. Courtesy of TOP Museum (Tokyo Photographic Art Museum) for their free loan of the artist’s work to Algorithmic Art (2018) 「時間層 II」榮獲東京第17回現代日本美術展大賞之最年少受賞。特別鳴謝東京都寫真美術館免費借出館藏作為是次展覽之用

簡介

《時間層 II》於是次展覽中有兩種意義,第一,作為前數位年代亞洲媒體藝術的刻劃標誌,第二,強調並重申活動影像藝術與新媒體藝術不可忽視的聯繫。這次來港的作品是一共四個的裝置系列之一,當中岩井俊雄重製電影史前的光學科技玩具-西洋鏡 — 實驗的同時加進了新科技。《時間層 II》的 120個電視頭的紙板人偶站在直徑3呎、裝上馬達的圓形轉盤上,轉盤繞著軸心旋轉,人偶們也隨著擺晃,搖頭擺腦的挨近又移離,像精心編排的表演一樣。一個錄像屏幕於人偶之上懸空向下射,充當頻閃燈,調節顏色與光的速度以至可與音樂同步,令人偶產生動態。所有的元素結合起來,產生了一個持續演變的「流動」影像。

Concept

Time Stratum I-IV was the second in a series of artworks in which Iwai experimented with using new technologies to re-make pre-cinema moving image toys. His fascination with moving imagery, and combining old and new media technologies started in childhood: textbook page corners were where he created his first flipbook animations; and motor-driven mechanical toys were turned into play-experiments. At university, he encountered experimental animation films and became interested in animation history. These factors led him to discover pre-cinema moving image technologies and explore the remaking of such old media using new technologies.

The precursor to the Time Stratum Series is Copy Phenakisti-scopes (1982), an 8mm animation film which incorporated photocopies of everyday objects. The basic format of the original phenakisti-scope (invented c. 1832) comprises a disk with slotted edges to hold cut out images, which is then spun in front of a mirror. For his next version, Iwai turned to computing and wrote programs that generated geometrical shapes, which played on a computer in Computer Phenakisti-scopes (1983).

Time Stratum II (1985) is a motorized sculpture that shows how images transform with changes in light via spinning and rotating. It was not an isolated experiment, but part of a series of pre-cinematic optical technology toy explorations. After earlier experiments with phenakistiscopes, using both images on paper and computers, Iwai moved on to the Time Stratum series to test another pre-cinematic optical toy, the zoetrope, which works with pictures or objects. Time Stratum I and Time Stratum II were made back to back, showing the move from 2D pictures to 3D paper sculptures. All of the previous experiments fed into Time Stratum II, retaining from previous works the use of 3D moving images while exploring TV monitors as a strobe light source.

In Time Stratum III (1989), the intention was to enlarge the scale of the 3D effect. Iwai explained, “I used 3 acrylic domes to place hundreds of moving shapes. I used 4 computers, one for the real-time performance of music and sending the synchronisation signals, and other 3 for making strobe lights in synch with the music. I animated images of animals, plants and minerals, one in each of the three domes.” The sculptural character of Time Stratum II evolved into video projection in Time Stratum IV (1990) in which video monitors were no longer needed to create strobe lights. Instead, hundreds of computer-generated animation frames were fixed to 3 layers of spinning clear plastic disks. The resulting spectacle looked like moving objects underwater, and visitors felt they were “almost able to touch these images.”

Considering the Time Stratum series, Iwai recalled:

“While I was making these installations, I was always thinking about the relationship between moving images and us. When we go to the cinema, we must meet schedules, and sit still from the start until the movie is finished with us. I like movies but sometimes I hated this one-way situation.

“For example, to see a sculpture, we can see it at our own pace, and from angles which we ourselves decided. My installations using strobing light source were a kind of moving image sculpture, and a sort of answer to my own questions about what would happen if nobody invented movies and one were to evolve pre-cinematic technologies this 100 years. I believe the movies didn’t succeed some important things for us from pre-cinematic inventions to be mass media. I think one of most important things was interactivity.

“Then, several years ago, I began to use the personal computer, both as creative tool and creative material. This has changed my work considerably. I realised that personal computers might extend elements found in pre-cinematic imaging technologies. Especially for the real-time manipulation of audio and visual components.”

 

概念

在岩井俊雄利用新科技重製電影史前活動影像玩具的實驗作品中,「時間層  I-IV 」是第二個這樣的系列。童年的他便對於會動動的影像著迷,對舊和新媒體科技的結合興趣然:在教科書書角上,他創作了第一個手翻書動畫; 馬達驅動的機械玩具常變作他的小實驗。大學時期,他認識了實驗動畫影片因而對動畫歷史產生興趣。這些因素讓他發掘前電影的活動影像技術,以至萌生利用新科技重新製作舊媒體的探索。

「時間層系列」的前作為 Copy Phenakisti-scopes (1982), 一個由日常物件的影印圖像製成的8米厘動畫影片。原本的費納奇鏡(phenakisti-scope, 發明於1832年)的基本版由有狹縫的旋轉碟片、碟片上一格格的圖片與鏡子構成,使用者通過移動的狹縫看碟片的圖片在鏡子的反射。這個基本運作在岩井的下個版本中给轉化到計算科技的應用,由他編寫程式生產幾何形狀;這就是 Computer Phenakisti-scopes (1983) ,在電腦上觀看。

《時間層 II 》(1985) 突顯了影像如何透過旋轉與迴轉在變動的光中演化出來的機動雕塑。如上所述,這並不是一個獨立的實驗,而是一系列電影史前影像科技玩具探索的其中一部分。岩井在「時間層」系列之前已經實驗過有關費納奇鏡的新可能性,玩弄過紙張和電腦上的影像;在「時間層」系列中,岩井拿了另外一個電影史前的影像玩具-西洋鏡 — 作實驗。西洋鏡可玩弄平面影像或實物,兩者皆可。《時間層 I》和 《時間層 II》展現由二維圖片走向三維紙雕的製作。《時間層 II》的醞釀源自之前的實驗,在保留前期作品所用到的三維流動影像的同時,岩井探討電視屏幕作為頻閃燈光來源的可能性。

在《時間層 III》(1989) 裡,岩井的目標是擴展三維效果的規模。 岩井解釋:「我利用三個亞加力拱頂裝置設置了百多個移動形狀。我用了四個電腦,一個用作實時音樂表演和發出同步的訊號,另外三個則發出與音樂同步的頻閃燈光。我製作了動物、植物和礦物的影像,分別裝置在拱頂的不同部份。」《時間層 III》的雕塑特色演化成 《時間層 IV》(1990) 的錄像投影,「時間層 IV」不再利用錄像屏幕來造出頻閃燈光,而是把過百個電腦產生的一格格動畫裝放在三層明晰的旋轉膠碟片。結果造出如水底的流動影像般的畫面,而觀眾能感到「彷彿能幾乎觸碰到這些影像」的感官經驗。

關於「時間層」系列,岩井回顧說道:
「製作這些裝置的時候,我常常思考動影像與我們之間的關係。我們到電影院時都必須要依照著時間表,並且在電影完結之前從頭到尾的坐著。我喜歡電影但有時候我討厭這種單向的情況。

「例如說,觀看一個雕塑時,我們能以自己的速度以及自己決定的角度去看。我那些利用頻閃光源的裝置藝術是一種流動影像雕塑,也是一種我自己對於假設沒有人發明電影,電影史前的科技又有什麼演化的可能性的自問自答。我相信電影即使成為了主流媒體,有一些重要的特質並沒有由電影史前的發明承傳到電影上。我覺得其中一個最重要的失卻了的特質是互動性。

「然後,幾年前,我開始利用個人電腦作為創作工具和創作材料。這為我的創作帶來了很多改變。我發現個人電腦或許能延伸電影史前影像科技的一些元素特別是用於聲音和視覺元素的實時操控。」

Iwai quotes source: “A Short History of the Works”, 1993,
岩井的引文來源: “A Short History of the Works”, 1993,

http://museum.doorsofperception.com/doors1/transcripts/iwai/iwai.html

ALB_0582R
Time Stratum II (IWAI Toshio, 1985) on site at Algorithmic Art, 27 December 2018, City Hall Exhibition Hall, Hong Kong

Bio

Toshio IWAI (Japan) is an internationally renowned interactive media and installation artist also known for his commercial video games. He engages in a broad range of other creative modes, including television, music performance, museum lighting and digital musical instrument design. He has created characters and computer graphic designs for TV programs, as well as computer game software.

Iwai received his Fine Art Degree in 1981 and completed his Masters in Plastic Art and Mixed Media in 1987, both at the Fine Arts Department, the University of Tsukuba, Japan, in 1987. His 1985 installation Time Stratum I won the Gold prize at the High Technology Art Exhibition ’85, Shibuya Seibu, Tokyo, and Time Stratum II was awarded the Grand Prize at the 17th Contemporary Japanese Art Exhibition, 1985, Meguro Art Museum, Tokyo. In 1987, he designed his first published video game, Otocky, in association with ASCII, and started exhibiting his interactive art at shows in Japan and overseas.

In 1991-92, he held a residency at the San Francisco Exploratorium. His works were displayed at the Seville EXPO in 1992 in Spain, and at the EC Japan Fest in 1993 in Antwerp, Belgium. In 1994-95, he was a visiting artist at ZKM in Karlsruhe, Germany, where his work included a major one-man show. Iwai held an artist residency at IAMAS (Ogaki, Japan) 1996-98, had a major retrospective exhibition at the NTT InterCommunication Center (ICC), Tokyo, in 1997, and held another residency at Mixed Reality Systems Laboratory in Yokohama, Japan, 1998-2001.

His work featured at the Biennale de Contemporain de Lyon in 1995, the Mediascape Exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum in New York in 1996, and the G7 Summit Exhibition in Lyon in 1997. In 1996, Iwai published a Windows CD-ROM Simtunes in the United States, followed by Japanese, German and French editions. In 1997, a major retrospective exhibition plus innovative workshops were held at ICC in Tokyo.

簡歷

岩井 俊雄 (日本) 是國際知名的裝置藝術和互動媒體藝術家,他創作的電子遊戲也廣為人知。他投身於廣泛的創作模式,包括電視、音樂表演、博物館燈光和電子樂器設計。他為電視節目和電腦遊戲軟件創作過人物角色和電腦圖像設計。

岩井於1981年獲得藝術學士學位,並於1987年完成日本筑波大學藝術系塑藝術和混合媒體碩士。他1985年的裝置藝術「時間層 I」榮獲於涉谷西武舉辦的高科技藝術國際展覽’85大賞,而「時間層 II」亦榮獲東京1985年東京目黒區美術館的第17回現代日本美術展大賞之最年少受賞。 1987年,與ASCII合作下,他設計了他第一個發行的電子遊戲-Otocky, 並開始了他的互動藝術在日本和海外展覽的展出。

創作方面,1991-92年,他在美國舊金山Exploratorium 探索博物館駐創作。他的作品於1992年在西班牙塞維亞舉行的世界博覽會和1993年比利時安特衛普的EC Japan Fest 展出。1994-95年,他到德國卡爾斯魯厄媒體藝術中心作到訪藝術家,並舉行了一場大型個人展覽。他於1996-98年於日本大垣市IAMAS駐,1997年在東京NTT InterCommunication Center (ICC)舉辦大型回顧展,以及1998-2001年在日本橫濱市Mixed Reality Systems Laboratory駐

岩井的作品於1995年 的Biennale de Contemporain de Lyon、1996年的紐約古根漢美術館的 Mediascape Exhibition 、1997年於里昂舉辦的七大工業國組織會議展覽展出。 1996年岩井在美國發行了Windows CD-ROM  Simtunes, 並接著發行了日本、德國和法國的版本。1997年,他在東京ICC舉行了大型回顧展和一系列的創新工作坊。